and whom, unless too close resemblance cheats me, 1.14.2). It is as if a terrible, bloody battle had been fought. This is the concept that emphatically guides the thinking of Dante’s political treatise Monarchia, where the need to justify a single ruler leads to the explanation that what can be done by one, “per unum”, is better done by one than by many, “per plura”: “Et quod potest fieri per unum, melius est per unum fieri quam per plura” (Mon. And then he set his hand upon the jaw Call to remembrance Pier da Medicina, And one, who both his hands dissevered had, 12come Livïo scrive, che non erra, 13con quella che sentio di colpi doglie To bring more closely unto us its words. Behind us here, a devil decks us out By reason of our speech and memory, 113e vidi cosa ch’io avrei paura, And this is true as that I speak to thee.”. The contemporary Christian heretic Fra Dolcino will be here after he dies in 1307; the classical Roman Curio, as well as the moderns Pier da Medicina, Bertran de Born, and Mosca de’ Lamberti, are already present.  In Inferno 28 the application of the Geryon principle is further strengthened by the use of the present tense, with the adverb “ancora” carrying the full weight of the poet’s visionary authority. Urging Fra Dolcino to arm himself so that he may withstand the wintry siege that eventually led to his fateful surrender, Dante’s Mohammed might be construed as inciting Dolcino to schism even now. the others in that melancholy herd; it carried by the hair its severed head, Because I parted persons so united, Of one of his companions, and his mouth That maketh excrement of what is eaten. Inferno | Canto 28 | Summary. 1.15.2]). The lexical saturation of these two canti can be compared visually in the charts below:  Inferno 28 signals its virtuosic focus from the outset, opening with a rhetorical question that highlights the narrator and his abilities:  In this passage, Dante is saying that he is able to accomplish within the constraints of verse what other writers would not be able to carry off even within the relatively less constrained, and hence easier, medium of prose. 16.124) — to be assimilated by the pilgrim, now the roles are reversed. 49a me, che morto son, convien menarlo  In other words, in the overall category — sowers of discord — there are two sub-categories: sowers of civic discord (“scandalo”) and sowers of religious discord (“scisma”). Plot Summary. Between the isles of Cyprus and Majorca, 46«Né morte ’l giunse ancor, né colpa ’l mena», with food, if he has no desire to join me, here quickly, lest when snow besieges him, He accompanied King Richard I of England (known as the Lionheart), son of King Henry II, on a crusade to Palestine. As the schismatics tore asunder the fabric of the body politic (and consider the Old Man of Crete in Inferno 14 as another literalizing of the metaphor of the “body politic”), so they are now themselves literally torn asunder. Was each Apulian, and at Tagliacozzo, 25Tra le gambe pendevan le minugia; Summary: Canto XXI.  Now, Bertran de Born explains that his sundering of father from son in life is reflected in the sundering of his head from his torso in the afterlife:  The concept contrapasso is a shorthand for expressing the principle that governs the relationship between what the sinner did in life and what the sinner experiences in the afterlife. https://digitaldante.columbia.edu/dante/divine-comedy/inferno/inferno-28/ I made the son and father enemies: 62Mäometto mi disse esta parola; Columbia University. This word did Mahomet say unto me, In Inferno 25 Dante construes his superiority over his classical precursors in terms of the kind of metamorphosis that he alone is able to portray, while in Inferno 28 his superiority is measured in terms of the ability to do in verse what his classical precursor does in prose. When we have gone around the doleful road; you ever see again the gentle plain The hallmark of this style is its ability to encompass within a 20-verse span both the erudite reference to the Roman historian Livy and the “tristo sacco / che merda fa di quel che si trangugia” (sad sack that makes shit of what is swallowed [Inf. And David did with his accursed goadings. we’ve made our way around the road of pain, and rules the land which one who’s here with me 116la buona compagnia che l’uom francheggia And one who walked with both his hands hacked off, or end— piece, ever gapes as one whom I 11che de l’anella fé sì alte spoglie, Likewise, if an individual has faith in Christ, they must be openly baptized and in a state of grace to avoid Limbo. did not do worse with Absalom and David. 106gridò: «Ricordera’ti anche del Mosca, LitCharts Teacher Editions. 39rimettendo ciascun di questa risma. Watch Queue Queue. except that I am reassured by conscience, Geri del Bello appears in the opening section of Inferno 29. remember Pier da Medicina if can only suffer harm if he delays.”. 77a messer Guido e anco ad Angiolello, I made the father and the son rebellious; within the ditch and turned / to look at me. 42prima ch’altri dinanzi li rivada. “Death has not reached him yet,” my master answered, If e’er thou see again the lovely plain Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Inferno and what it means.  As noted above, the souls of the ninth bolgia include sowers of civil as well as religious discord. know that I am Bertran de Born, the one This is the place of the Sowers of Discord and Scandal, and the Creators of Schism within the papacy. Tell of the blood and of the wounds in full That of the rings made such illustrious spoils, Click to copy Summary.  In the next canto Dante will look back at Bertran de Born, using a periphrasis for the troubadour, lord of Hautefort: “colui che già tenne Altaforte” (the one who once held Hautefort [Inf. Proceeding to larger and larger conclusions, Dante goes on to align oneness — “unum” — with goodness, and multiplicity — “multa” — with evil: “unum esse videtur esse radix eius quod est esse bonum, et multa esse eius quod est esse malum” (to be one seems to be the root of what it is to be good, and to be many of what it is to be evil [Mon. By making counterstand to Robert Guiscard, 37Un diavolo è qua dietro che n’accisma 10per li Troiani e per la lunga guerra “And death unto thy race,” thereto I added; Hung from the hand in fashion of a lantern, 92se vuo’ ch’i’ porti sù di te novella, 90non sarà lor mestier voto né preco». beneath the breastplate of its purity. A trunk without a head walk in like manner Between the isles of Cyprus and Majorca Detailed explanations, analysis, and citation info for every important quote on LitCharts. (Monarchia 3.1.3; translation Prue Shaw, emphasis mine). when they fought hard against Robert Guiscard; 45ch’è giudicata in su le tue accuse?». Dante again worries that he cannot express his story adequately through language.  The human shapes of the sinners of the ninth bolgia are mutilated in ways that represent their mutilation of the body politic, the corporate body of the state or institution that they wounded and harmed. perhaps to slow your going to the verdict Inferno: Canto 28 Summary & Analysis. That traitor, who sees only with one eye, 28.108). see if there’s any pain as great as this. This sardonic announcement takes the form of Mohammed urging Dolcino to stock up well on food and supplies if he doesn’t want to follow him speedily to the ninth bolgia: “s’ello non vuol qui tosto seguitarmi” (if he doesn’t want to follow me soon [Inf. Note: Dante suddenly changes the souls' desires to be remembered. Therefore, Socrates gained his ideal eternity.  The hostility toward multiplicity that we see in Monarchia informs a canto like Inferno 28. of a companion, opening his mouth We note, too, how the placement of Mohammed picks up from the previous canto’s reference to “Saracens” and the fall of Acre to the Muslims in 1291 (Inf. 65e tronco ’l naso infin sotto le ciglia, Dante knew and admired Bertran’s poetry: he cites Bertran de Born as a great poet of arms in De vulgari eloquentia 2.2.9 and praises the troubadour in the Convivio for his liberality (4.11.14). This worry does more to emphasize how incredible his journey was than express any real lack of self-confidence in his talent as a poet. 96gridando: «Questi è desso, e non favella. 81per tradimento d’un tiranno fello. So that the blood made horrible his face, Cried out: “Thou shalt remember Mosca also, My Master made reply, “to be tormented; no vow or prayer to Focara’s wind!”, And I to him: “If you would have me carry 43Ma tu chi se’ che ’n su lo scoglio muse, 40quand’ avem volta la dolente strada; he went his way as one gone mad with sadness. alas—my brain dissevered from its source, Disseminators of scandal and of schism While I was all intent on watching him, In a catalogue of body parts in Inferno according to usage per canto, compiled by Grace Delmolino, Inferno 28 ranks second after Inferno 25. which is within my trunk. 136Io feci il padre e ’l figlio in sé ribelli; who gave bad counsel to the fledgling king. In the Monarchia he specifically cites the image’s biblical pedigree. which swayed within its hand just like a lantern; And nose cut off close underneath the brows, Which was an ill seed for the Tuscan people. See now how maimed Mohammed is! 112Ma io rimasi a riguardar lo stuolo, (including. weighed down with stones, near La Cattolica, Poets come to edge of 9th Bolgia and see 71e cu’ io vidi su in terra latina,  Already in the Vita Nuova, Dante writes that it would be shameful not to be able to account for his poetic practice: grande vergogna sarebbe a colui che rimasse cose sotto vesta di figura o di colore rettorico, e poscia, domandato, non sapesse denudare le sue parole da cotale vesta, in guisa che avessero verace intendimento. it bring the Novarese the victory 31vedi come storpiato è Mäometto! Neptune ne’er yet beheld so great a crime that otherwise they would not find too easy.”. 14per contastare a Ruberto Guiscardo; When it was come close to the bridge’s foot, Crescenzio Onofri; Livio Mehus - Dante and Virgil in Hell.jpg 662 × 661; 421 KB. 28.26-27]). Who gave to the Young King the evil comfort. Mosca’s argument for murdering Buondelmonte is the proverbial “Capo ha cosa fatta” (What’s done is at an end [Inf. attempts at telling, ever could recount It would be shameful for one who wrote poetry dressed up with figures or rhetorical color not to know how to strip his words of such dress, upon being asked to do so, showing their true sense. 36fuor vivi, e però son fessi così. Fra Dolcino was burnt at the stake for his heretical beliefs in 1307, thus seven years after Dante’s visit to Hell in the spring of 1300. 32Dinanzi a me sen va piangendo Alì, and scandal, and for this they now are split. 64Un altro, che forata avea la gola and one his limb hacked off, that would not match Chiavacci Leonardi cites the tradition according to which Mohammed was believed to have originally been a Christian priest: “Secondo la tradizione medievale dell’Occidente, Maometto era infatti in origine un prete cristiano” (. Without some further proof, even to recount. .  Bertran de Born abetted the rebellions of the sons of King Henry II against their father. Which otherwise to gain would not be easy.”. In its insistence on a virtuosity of gruesomeness, the representation of the bolgia of the sowers of discord is akin to the representation of the bolgia of the thieves, albeit without the sexualized component. That have small room to comprehend so much, If were again assembled all the people he was the first, before the rest, to open 123e quel mirava noi e dicea: «Oh me!». It is hard to imagine what political assessment could be more devastating, from Dante’s perspective, than the link that he establishes here between the Tuscans and the Jews. 2dicer del sangue e de le piaghe a pieno  The didactic and exemplary nature of this canto creates the context for the appearance of the word “contrapasso” in the canto’s last verse, where it is spoken by Bertran de Born.  Again, we find here the principle of the literalized metaphor discussed in the Commento on Inferno 3. 3ch’i’ ora vidi, per narrar più volte? Struggling with distance learning? And saw a thing which I should be afraid, to circle after circle, throughout Hell: 82Tra l’isola di Cipri e di Maiolica Entering the Fifth Pouch of the Eighth Circle of Hell, Dante sees “an astounding darkness.” The darkness is a great pit filled with a kind of boiling tar similar to what the Venetians used to patch their ships (XXI.6). 29guardommi e con le man s’aperse il petto, 28.35). As Livy has recorded, who errs not, With those who felt the agony of blows What’s done is done and cannot become undone. Now the pilgrim becomes the source of wonder to the damned souls. 119un busto sanza capo andar sì come  The task of Inferno is to equal in its textuality the foul mode of infernal reality, which is labeled as though it too were a genre or style, a “foul style”: a “modo . Tuscany’s Evil Seed.” Commento Baroliniano, Digital Dante. 103E un ch’avea l’una e l’altra man mozza, And all the rest, whose bones are gathered still. His poetry is echoed in the long and bloody similes that open Inferno 28. If thou wouldst have me bear up news of thee, This one, being banished, every doubt submerged saw ripped right from his chin to where we fart: his bowels hung between his legs, one saw 75che da Vercelli a Marcabò dichina. Thus is observed in me the counterpoise.”. to tell with no more proof than my own self—. and with his nose hacked off up to his eyebrows, That is adjudged upon thine accusations ?”. Here the poet applies what in The Undivine Comedy I call “the Geryon principle” (pp. 129per appressarne le parole sue. Should show, it would be nothing to compare 28.108). And all the others here whom you can see 126com’ esser può, quei sa che sì governa. Instant downloads of all 1391 LitChart PDFs because the shallowness of both our speech As Dante looks into the ninth pouch, he is stunned by the amount of blood and wounds he sees. When it was just below the bridge, it lifted At Ceperano, where a renegade In the next canto, Dante adds to the indictment of this dynasty, calling Malatestino a “tiranno fello” (foul tyrant [Inf. some news of you above, then tell and show me Each tongue that tried would certainly fall short With the disgusting mode of the ninth Bolgia. Dante's inclusion of Mohammed allows him to incorporate another religious tradition (that of Islam) into his all-encompassing Christian epic, and to privilege Christianity above that "competitive" religion. When he had raised his heel, as if to go, we have returned to meet his blade once more. 98in Cesare, affermando che ’l fornito 58sì di vivanda, che stretta di neve 30dicendo: «Or vedi com’ io mi dilacco! 28.21). Staying to look in wonder with the others, Mohammed said these words to me, and then And that upon us gazed and said: “O me !”. 100Oh quanto mi pareva sbigottito 17ciascun Pugliese, e là da Tagliacozzo, Whereas in Inferno 16 Geryon was a fantastic truth — a “ver c’ha faccia di menzogna” (Inf. because of a foul tyrant’s treachery. WHO ever could, e’en with untrammelled words, Then to depart upon the ground he stretched it. they will be cast out of their ship and drowned, The Occitan troubadour enunciates the word “contrapasso” in Inferno 28.142, while holding his severed head in his hand.